Founder’s guide to the pre-IPO secondary market

Ryan Conner Contributor Share on Twitter Ryan Conner is a corporate attorney at Atrium part of the General Counsel Group representing early-stage startups.

The increase in activity in the pre-IPO secondary market means that founders, early employees, and investors are receiving liquidity much sooner in a company’s lifecycle than ever before. For most startups and privately held companies, liquidity is often an issue for stockholders as no market exists for selling shares and/or transfer restrictions prevent their sale. Secondary stock transactions, however, are a way to work around this problem.

Here’s a quick look at how they work and what to keep in mind, especially if you’re going through the process for the first time. (If you’re not familiar, secondaries are transactions in which an existing stockholder sells their stock for cash to third parties or back to the company itself before the company undergoes an exit; traditionally, an exit refers to an M&A or an IPO.)

Offering secondary transactions to founders is a tool VCs have been using to win deals. For example, if a VC promises that the founders will receive $1,000,000 in cash through a

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